Intake of Fruit, Vegetables, Salt and Fat in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease and Related Non-Communicable Diseases among Indigenous and Immigrant Pakistanis

Qaisar Raza , Nur International University Lahore
Mary Nicolaou, University of Amsterdam
Jaap Seidell, Vrij Universitet Amsterdam

Background: Pakistanis have high risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Fruit, vegetables, salt and fat intake play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and the related non-communicable diseases. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the intake of fruits, vegetables, salt and fat intake among both indigenous and immigrant Pakistanis. Methods: The search engine used was PubMed and Google scholar supplemented with regional data from the Medical Institutes of Pakistan. The focus was on the adult Pakistani population (18 years and older). Results: We found only 13 studies among the indigenous and immigrant Pakistanis. The studies had limitations such as low participation rates and use of self-report. There was low intake of fruits and vegetables (35%) and high intake of fat (36.6%) and salt (6%). In addition, 77% of households used ghee, 23% used oil, 48% took green leafy vegetables & 29% ate fruit daily. Socio-economic status was highly related to the dietary intake as many participants reported that fruits were too expensive to buy. As far as recommended WHO energy intake was concerned, 67,5% people reported adequate energy intake while 33% were energy deficient. Conclusion: The relatively low intake of fruits and vegetales and high intake of fat and salt in relation to the socio-economic status of the populations requires attention of the healthcare professionals, community and public health nutritionists and policy makers, both inside and outside Pakistan.

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 Presented in Session P2. Poster Session Ageing, Health and Mortality